Men is a social creature and our well-being in the majority of cases is dependent on auditory communication. The underdevelopment of this communicative function is negatively reflected in potential opportunities of an individual. Speech violations are caused by the different reasons depending on which the person has these or those manifestations. The most complex problem in respect of correction is dysarthria, the underdevelopment of communicative function caused by organic damage of the central nervous system.
Types of Dysarthria
A person suffering from dysarthria have problems with sounds pronouncing. It has various intensity connecting with change of skin and neck muscles tonus. Violations of speech breath and voice are also characteristic. In severe cases the speech becomes so illegible that can’t serve as a means of communication. Depending on localization of the center of nervous system defeat there are following forms of dysarthria:
- Bulbar dysarthria. Problems with the speech are caused by decrease in a tone of muscles of lips and cheeks. Their slackness leads to violation of pronunciation of the lip sounds demanding sufficient muscular tension. The voice has a nasal shade;
- Pseudobulbar dysarthria. There are two kinds of this form, they are spastic and paretic. Most often the first of them meets, but also the combination both is possible. The pronunciation not only of concordants, but also vowels is distorted, violations of breath and voice, salivation are noted;
- Extrapyramidal dysarthria. At a similar form of dysarthria the speech is distorted in connection with sharp changes of muscular tone. It leads to emergence of so-called hyperkinesis, a violent movements, uncontrollable the person;
- Cerebellar dysarthria. At damage of cerebellum the tone of articulation muscles considerably decreases, the speech becomes chanted, lack of accents is noted;
- Cortical dysarthria. The symptomatology of speech violations at this form of dysarthria differs in considerable variability, depending on place of injury of cerebral cortex.
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Treatment of Dysarthria
Speech violations complicate social adaptation of the person. They promote emergence of problems in private life, limit possibilities of profession choice. Especially considerably it in case of dysarthria existence the speech at which is extremely muffled and it isn’t legible. For this reason rendering the timely adequate help in the solution of a similar problem is so important. At dysarthria treatment demands an integrated approach. For achievement of positive result logopedic work on correction of sound pronunciation surely has to be followed by the corresponding medicamentous therapy. Carrying out articulation massage, in some cases physiotreatment is also necessary. Dysarthria is difficult and hardly the speech violation which is giving in correction. Success of its overcoming depends on timeliness and systematicity of correctional work. It, in turn, is directly connected with that, the corresponding diagnosis is how precisely made. After all dysarthria which treatment demands a long time, not always has accurately expressed symptomatology. Any violations of the speech, except physiological dislaliya at preschool age, demand carrying out special correctional events. Besides a bad pronunciation of sounds that in itself is essential defect, often there are also other problems, especially serious speech violation as dysarthria. This underdevelopment of grammatical speech system and also violation of sounds formation analysis and synthesis that results in difficulties of the letter.
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